Pressing this point further, they denounced justification by faith alone and other cherished Protestant teachings as novelties without grounding in authentic church tradition. Luther strengthened his attacks on Rome by depicting a "good" against "bad" church.
Its religious aspects were supplemented by ambitious political rulers who wanted to extend their power and control at the expense of the Church.
He sponsored the revision and clarification of the Code of Canon Lawwhich was completed during the reign of his successor and which replaced the code that had been in effect since the Middle Ages.
It would be an oversimplification, therefore, to put the Enlightenment unequivocally on the side of the critics and revolutionaries. Portrait by Hans Asper. A meeting was held in his castle innow known as the Colloquy of Marburgwhich has become infamous for its complete failure.
Then he fought the Schmalkaldic War Certain aspects of music and liturgy and other practical issues were discussed as well.
Following a brief Catholic restoration during the reign of Mary —a loose consensus developed during the reign of Elizabeth Ithough this point is one of considerable debate among historians.
In GenevaCalvin was able to experiment with his ideal of a disciplined community of the elect. He gave large gifts of land and money to the Church and offered tax exemptions and other special legal status to Church property and personnel. So far-reaching were the results of the separation that the Reformation has been called a turning point in history.
The Roman Catholic Church was also obliged to deal with the nation-states of the modern era individually. Experts often speak of a gradual process of realization between and Finally on 30 Maywhen the pope demanded an explanation, Luther wrote a summary and explanation of his theses to the pope.
Parallel to events in Germany was a movement began in Switzerland under the leadership of Ulrich Zwingli. He did not want one of his subjects to be sent to Rome to be judged by the Catholic clergy so he prevailed on Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor to arrange a compromise.
Ina well known scholar of the age, Erasmuswrote The Praise of Follya work which captured a widely held unease about corruption in the Church. Later waves of colonial expansion such as the Scramble for Africa or the struggle for India by the NetherlandsEnglandFranceGermany and Russia led to Christianization of other native populations across the globe, eclipsing that of the Roman period and making it a truly global religion.
Calvinism[ edit ] Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought within the Protestant tradition articulated by John Calvin and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin and his interpretation of Scriptureand perspective on Christian life and theology.
Germany was home to the greatest number of Protestant reformers that developed the Reformation. This stormy, often brutal, conflict separated the Christians of Western Europe into Protestants and Catholics.
Together with Jean Mabillona Benedictine monk and scholar, Bossuet helped to lay the foundations of modern Roman Catholic historiography. June Political situation in Germany about Religious situation in Germany and Europe about Officially, Protestantism remained an exclusively German phenomenon that concerned only the Holy Roman Empire through the late s and the s.
The Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation is known as the Counter-Reformation which resulted in a reassertion of traditional doctrines and the emergence of new religious orders aimed at both moral reform and new missionary activity.
Pope Gregory III vehemently disagreed. While the pope may have conceded some of the points, he did not like the challenge to his authority so he summoned Luther to Rome to answer these. From onward, religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of Europe. Although he defeated the Protestants, he could not turn back the movement of the Reformation.
The Pope Marcellus Mass, in short, was not important in its own day and did not help save church polyphony. Roman Catholicism and the Protestant Reformation Whatever its nonreligious causes may have been, the Protestant Reformation arose within Roman Catholicism; there both its positive accomplishments and its negative effects had their roots.
The Scottish Reformation decisively shaped the Church of Scotland  and, through it, all other Presbyterian churches worldwide. Ducal Prussia was followed by many imperial free cities and other minor imperial entities. It would be fair to say that the Counter-Reformation, especially the founding of the Jesuits and the results of the Council of Trent, slammed the door shut on any possible reconciliation with Protestantism or the Reformers.
After the expulsion of its Bishop inand the unsuccessful attempts of the Berne reformer Guillaume William FarelCalvin was asked to use the organisational skill he had gathered as a student of law to discipline the "fallen city" of Geneva.At the start of the 16th century Western Europe had only one religion, Roman Catholicism.
The Catholic church was rich and powerful and had preserved Europe's classical culture. However, despite General Councils called to impose reforms, disputes and lax practices had grown up within the church. The Reformers of the sixteenth century believed the only path to lasting reformation was the Word of God.
As a result, the Bible again became the ultimate authority. Surrounded by powerful dignitaries of both church and state, the young Augustinian monk was asked whether he would repudiate the books. The Catholic Church in Europe, The Reformation, Renaissance and Reformation, SOSE: History, Year 8, QLD Introduction The Middle Ages in European history was a time characterised by conformism.
It was also a time of fear and superstition. People who displayed creativity or diverged from established methods of thinking and behaving.
The Catholic Reformation in the Sixteenth Century This article, fromexamines the achievements of the 16th-century Catholic reformation as well as the obstacles encountered as a result of. The Reformation (more fully the Protestant Reformation, or the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th-century Europe.
The Reformation was a 16th-century religious and political challenge to papal authority in Catholic Europe.
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